Can blockchain voting improve African elections amid coups?

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  • A concerning 27% of African elections have been disputed in the last five years, recent major ones being the Zimbabwe and Gabon elections.
  • The application of blockchain technology through blockchain voting may hold the answer to integrity in African elections
  • The successful adoption of blockchain voting hinges upon the collaborative efforts of governments, technology providers, NGOs, and citizens to surmount the distinct challenges of the African context.

Elections lie at the core of democratic societies, providing citizens with the means to shape the trajectory of their nations. However, across the African continent, the credibility of election outcomes has often been marred by disputes and allegations of irregularities.

According to the African Elections Observatory, an organization dedicated to monitoring electoral processes across Africa, a concerning 27% of African elections have been disputed in the last five years. Recent instances, such as the Gabonese presidential election and Zimbabwean harmonized elections, have emphasized the pressing need for innovative solutions to bolster transparency, security, and the integrity of the electoral process. The application of blockchain technology through blockchain voting may hold the answer.

Blockchain Technology: A revolutionary approach to voting

Blockchain technology is a transformative contender for more reliable and secure voting systems. A blockchain is a decentralized and distributed digital ledger that offers unparalleled security and transparency. Its application in voting, commonly called blockchain voting, can potentially address some of the critical challenges plaguing African elections.

Understanding the mechanism of blockchain voting

Blockchain voting introduces a paradigm shift in how elections are conducted and verified. The process commences with the verification of voter identities. Individuals are registered and authenticated through digital mechanisms. Systems such as biometric data or government-issued identification ensure that only eligible individuals partake in the electoral process.

Creating digital ballots

Central to the blockchain voting mechanism is the creation of a digital ballot. This cryptographic representation of the poll encompasses the list of candidates or options available to voters. By encrypting the vote, the voter’s privacy is upheld while the integrity of their choice is maintained.

Blockchain voting process

Voting unfolds as individuals digitally sign their encrypted ballots using their unique private keys. This digital signature, distinctive to each voter, is appended to the poll. Thereby validating its authenticity and mitigating the risks of tampering.

Verification and validation

The validation and verification of transactions transpire as encrypted ballots, along with their corresponding digital signatures, are submitted to the blockchain network. Network nodes, driven by consensus mechanisms such as Proof of Work (PoW) or Proof of Stake (PoS), ensure the accuracy of the recorded information.


Through the addition of verified transactions, an immutable chain of blocks is formed, with each block intricately linked to its predecessor through cryptographic means. This unchangeable structure establishes a transparent and secure record of the election’s progression.


Decentralization and transparency are fundamental to the very architecture of blockchain. The network’s nodes are dispersed among multiple participants, eliminating the risk associated with a single point of failure. This decentralized nature and the blockchain’s inherent transparency amplify independent verification and trust.


As the voting period concludes, the decryption of encrypted ballots utilizing voters’ private keys ensues. The automated blockchain system is responsible for tallying the votes, significantly minimizing the likelihood of human errors while ensuring the precision of results.

Results publishing

The results are made publicly accessible on the blockchain. Allowing citizens to independently verify the outcome and maintain their confidence in the sanctity of the election process.

Challenges in the African Context

While the potential of blockchain voting to enhance the credibility of African elections is indeed promising, it’s crucial to acknowledge and address the unique challenges that the region presents. These challenges require careful consideration and meticulous planning to ensure the successful integration of blockchain technology into the electoral landscape:

Infrastructure and connectivity

One of the most significant hurdles in implementing blockchain voting in Africa is the need for more internet connectivity and technological infrastructure in many areas. The digital divide between urban and rural regions can hinder access to stable internet connections. This is essential for secure and efficient voting processes. Addressing this challenge demands a comprehensive approach that involves improving telecommunications infrastructure, expanding network coverage, and investing in reliable internet services. Initiatives to establish digital hubs and community centers can play a pivotal role in providing access to necessary technologies. Enabling more widespread participation in blockchain voting.

Digital literacy

A substantial portion of the African population needs to gain familiarity with digital technologies, which can hinder the adoption of blockchain voting systems. To bridge this gap, comprehensive education and awareness campaigns are imperative. These campaigns should encompass not only the technical aspects of using blockchain voting platforms but also emphasize the importance of digital participation and its impact on the democratic process. Governments, NGOs, and educational institutions can collaborate to facilitate the development of digital literacy programs tailored to diverse populations. This collaboration ensures that these organizations equip citizens with the necessary skills to effectively engage in the digital voting landscape.

Cybersecurity concerns

As with any digital system, blockchain voting systems are susceptible to cyber threats and hacking attempts. Given the sensitive nature of election data, robust cybersecurity measures are paramount. Establishing a multi-layered cybersecurity framework involves encryption protocols, intrusion detection systems, and continuous monitoring to safeguard voter information and prevent unauthorized access. Collaborations between cybersecurity experts, technology providers, and government agencies are essential. Developing and implementing effective strategies that minimize the risks associated with online attacks and data breaches.

Trust in technology

Many African societies exhibit skepticism toward emerging technologies due to unfamiliarity, misinformation, or historical experiences with inadequate technology implementations. Building trust in blockchain voting systems necessitates a multifaceted approach. Robust public awareness campaigns should emphasize the benefits of blockchain technology, highlighting its transparency, security, and potential to eliminate electoral fraud. Additionally, showcasing successful pilot projects and engaging with local communities to address concerns and misconceptions can play a pivotal role in building confidence in the integrity of blockchain voting systems.

Regulatory and legal frameworks

Incorporating blockchain technology into the electoral process requires a thorough review and potential adaptation of existing election laws and regulations. The legal framework must accommodate the unique features of blockchain voting. Such as digital signatures and decentralized networks while ensuring compliance with local laws. Collaboration between legal experts, technology developers, and government authorities is essential to navigate the legal intricacies and create a supportive regulatory environment that fosters the adoption of blockchain voting.

Cultural norms and trust

Transitioning populations entrenched in traditional voting methods to a new technological paradigm is a complex endeavor that involves addressing cultural norms and fostering trust. Recognizing the significance of cultural practices related to elections and engaging with local communities is essential. Community outreach programs, town hall meetings, and interactive sessions can provide platforms to explain the benefits and security measures of blockchain voting. Fostering trust requires education and open dialogue to address concerns. Misconceptions about the new technology also must be addressed, ultimately encouraging a smoother transition.

Coercion and vote buying

Pre-election influence and manipulation, such as coercion and vote buying, remain persistent challenges in African elections. Blockchain voting systems must be designed to counter these threats effectively. Ensuring individual voices’ privacy while maintaining the blockchain’s transparency and traceability can minimize the potential for coercion. Voter education campaigns must explicitly address these issues. Empowering citizens to recognize and report instances of intimidation or vote buying, thereby reinforcing the integrity of the process.


The increasing popularity of blockchain voting demands a robust infrastructure that can handle a surge in concurrent transactions. Scalability solutions must be integrated into the system’s design, allowing it to accommodate many voters without compromising speed or security. This requires collaboration between blockchain developers and infrastructure providers to design a network that can seamlessly scale up as voter participation expands.

Cost and funding

The development and implementation of blockchain voting systems entail significant financial investment. Which can be challenging in regions with limited resources. Collaborative efforts between governments, international organizations, and private sector entities are essential to secure funding for these systems’ development, deployment, and ongoing maintenance. Exploring innovative funding models, such as public-private partnerships, can help alleviate the financial burden and ensure the sustainability of blockchain voting initiatives.

The prevalence of disputed elections in Africa underscores the urgency of embracing innovative solutions to elevate the credibility of electoral processes. Blockchain voting emerges as a promising avenue. Capitalizing on its decentralized and immutable nature to address transparency, security, and trust challenges prevalent in African elections. Through the strategic utilization of blockchain technology, African nations have the potential to reduce the occurrence of disputes, foster citizen confidence in the electoral process, and fortify democratic principles. However, the successful adoption of blockchain voting hinges upon the collaborative efforts of governments, technology providers, NGOs, and citizens. All must come together to surmount the distinct challenges of the African context. Paving the way for a more transparent, equitable, and credible democratic future. As the saying goes, what matters are not the votes but who counts the votes. In this case who handles the blockchain system.


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Kudzai G Changunda
Kudzai G Changunda
Finance guy with a considerable interest in the adoption of web 3.0 technologies in the financial landscape. Both technology and regulation focused but, of course, people first.