Simple programming languages to develop smart contracts

Published on:

  • There are two kinds of programming languages for smart contracts; dedicated and general purpose.
  • Solidity and Rholang languages are dedicated blockchain code languages catered specifically to smart contract coding.
  • Python and Rust are general-purpose programming languages whose functionalities also include smart contract coding.

Many individuals may be unaware, but intelligent contracts require a coding language like any other digital system. Most people believe smart contract coding or blockchain developer languages are unique and specific to Web3. This myth is partly true since some form of smart contract coding is tailor-made to fit the specific nature of the smart contract.

In comparison, most smart contract development processes utilize common programming languages. The difference comes in when applying and using each one. Here are the various programming languages for smart contracts and how they are specifically utilized and applied by different blockchain developers.

Programming Languages for Smart Contracts

Before diving into smart contracts’ technicalities, we described the essential components of this revolutionary technology. Blockchain developers can utilize these blockchain code languages differently. Some organizations focus on just a few, while others offer the freedom of interoperability between the languages. You should read the previous article to understand how these crypto codes could be helpful. 

Also, Read Basic concepts of how blockchains work.

In hindsight, smart contract coding is similar, and various institutions offer such certifications. Blockchain code languages are each designed to cater for a specific element, such as their immutable and decentralized nature.


The first and most utilized blockchain code language is Solididty. It is a blockchain development language that has created critical figureheads within the crypto industry. Solidity is the leading blockchain code language responsible for the efficient and compelling nature of Ethereum’s smart contract. Its technical term is a domain-specific language or DSL. This means it is one of the unique programming languages for smart contracts designed explicitly for blockchain developments.

Sample of a dedicated blockchain developer language, Solidity, representing a function in smart contract coding.[Photo/WIRED]
Gavin Wood, CTO of Ethereum and the individual that ushered in Web 3.0, came up with Solidity as a language. The main driving force behind this investment was the constant issues experienced in Ethereum’s network.

Initially, Ethereum never aimed to lead the crypto industry. Viltalik Buterin states that Ethereum as a protocol initially extends the blockchain functionalities pioneered by Bitcoin. As a result, they created Solidity to quickly design and build smart contacts that would run most of the operations and projects in Ethereum’s network. Thus a dedicated team led by Christian Reitweissner created a Turing-Complete program later known as Solidity. Today it is a common blockchain developer language utilized for building decentralized applications. 

Also, Read the Software, packages and tools you need to become a web3 developer.

Solidity’s applications and courses

Upon first look, Solidity closely resembles C++ and Javascript adopting different elements from both coding languages. Currently, it is the easiest and fastest programming language for smart contracts. Various organizations also utilize the standard functionalities of Solidity;

  • Ethereum Classic
  • Polkadot
  • Zhcash
  • Tron
  • Avalanche
  • Uniswap
  • Binance Smart Chain
  • Hedra Hashgraph

This language is a relatively easy-to-use blockchain developer language, especially if you have an avid background in programming. Several organizations offer this crypto code as a primary course within their institutions. Below are several sights where Solidity smart contract coding is available;

  • CryptoZombies
  • Blockchain Basics
  • Blockchain; Learning Solidity in Coursera
  • Blockchain Learning Solidity on LinkedIn
  • The Complete Solidarity Curse Blockchain- Zero to Expert in Udemy
  • Master Ethereum & Solidity Programming from Scratch in Udemy


Rust is a general-purpose programming language for Smart contracts. Unlike Soidity, it is not a dedicated crypto code. In 2006 Mozilla developed Rust as a program that can ultimately build different systems. According to Graydon Hoare, Rust is a language engineered by trade. It’s a blockchain developer language that is immutable and secure. It functions as a blockchain code language for this primary purpose. 

This blockchain developer language focuses mainly on memory security, type safety and concurrency. Blockchain developers can use their abilities to generate the distribution of memory in different blocks in a network. In addition, its memory security ensures that any alteration within its databases is only possible if most of the nodes or entities within the program agree on it. 

Rust is a general-purpose blockchain code language with numerous functionality beyond simply being a crypto code.[Photo/Medium]
This programming language for smart contracts is eerily similar to C++. The only difference is its added functionalities, like pattern matching and concurrency. This enables blockchain developers to create a quick ad practical framework by utilizing pattern matching to better memory operation and concurrency capabilities. In addition, it is also considered a polymorphic blockchain code language. Polymorphism in a programming language is the ability of a code to provide a single interface to entities of different types. This creates a single system that can operate different data forms without corruption or decreasing other systems’ efficiency. This crypto code accomplished this by combining Java-like interfaces and Haskell-like type classes. 

Also, Read Chipper Cash: An African fintech grayling to boost cryptocurrency adoption in Africa.

Rust’s utilization of C++ features makes smart contract coding efficient. Currently, almost all, if not most, systems must have a C++ layer withi their system, even in blockchain networks. As such, Rust is compatible with most systems and thus can be easily incorporated even after the entire creation of a system.

Rust’s applications and courses

Rust is utilized by ;

  •  Solana
  •  Polkadot
  • Hyperledger Sawtooth (for financial institutions)
  • the privacy coins Zcash (for anonymous transactions).

These institutions that offer Rust programming lessons include:

  • has numerous online courses for Rust from beginner level t advanced level.
  • Freecodecamp – a common programming sight that offers free lessons.
  • 101blockchains
  • Web3Careers

Since this crypto code is a general purpose, it has numerous applications beyond smart contract coding.


Like Solidity, Rholang is a programming language for smart contracts dedicated t its creation. It operates with a functional approach rather than an object-oriented one. In 2018 the RChain team developed Rholang to create a unique crypto code that would cater there Turing-complete issue while still having the capabilities to rival other dedicated blockchain code languages. This programing language for smart contracts is open and scalable. Its design emphasizes speed, reliability and a formal process orientation built on the latest research in reflective high-order process calculus.

It is among the top selection when smart contract coding and works well when developing decentralized applications. h RChain team ensured that it uses formal verification to check for errors during the coding process. In addition, since it is a dedicated system, it offers a much better alternative than general purpose. Its user-friendly interface allows easy and faster code creation. 

Furthermore, it is a blockchain developer language that utilizes state channels o process transactions between parties without exposing sensitive information. It essentailly caters to the anonymty of indivoudal users in a blochain network. Since it is still a new blockchain code language, the Rchain community owns it and courses. Any reading material for this blockchain developer language is within its ecosystem.

Also, Read The Metaverse and AI A bread and the butter relationship.


This list would only be complete by mentioning one of the most common and well know programming languages, Python. Many often think that since the python language dominates the vast majority of WEB2, it has no place as a crypto code. This cannot be further from the truth.

Python is also another general-purpose code that is a suitable programming language for smart contracts.[Photo/Our-Code-World]
Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language for smart contracts. Clear, short and precise codes make it more compatible than other blockchain developer languages. Python’s syntax is straightforward enough that reading code written by experts won’t put off professional programmes.

Python can allow a developer to create a smart contract without writing much code. Although on its own, it contains limited capabilities, it utilizes other programming languages for contacts. Furthermore, it does not require any compilation to run the code. This makes it much easier to troubleshoot while smart contract coding, alleviating a lot of cumbersome steps along the way. You should stop the application and navigate its source code to identify the error. This is often a cumbersome approach, but with Python as a blockchain developer language, you can run the program while wiring it.

Existing blockchain networks that utilize Python within their smart contract development.;


The programming languages are the most commonly used in terms of general and dedicated crypto code. You will often notice during smart contract coding that these blockchain code languages slightly or heavily resemble C++. This is because C++ or C are today’s foundation of all digital gadgets. Most, if not all, systems contain a layer of C++ or C; thus, developing a blockchain developer language that is similar to it will establish a sense of interoperability.

Also, Read The steps you need to take to become a blockchain developer.

The key aim of smart contract coding is to develop a blockchain network that will replace Web2. As a result, the programming languages for smart contracts will require interoperability since it is impossible to shift to Web3 directly. Other blockchain code languages, such as Golang, JavaScripy and Java, are commonly used today. 


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Ken Mutuku
Ken Mutuku
Your Guide to the Future of Tech, Web3, and Digital Storytelling. With a keen eye for detail and a knack for concise communication, Ken Mutuku is your go-to professional for decoding the next wave of technological evolution. Whether through captivating videos, insightful articles, or engaging presentations, he masterfully crafts messages that deeply resonate with his audience, setting him apart in the digital landscape.
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